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El Gorrión Doméstico | Celebrate Urban Birds

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Guía de Aves

El Gorrión Doméstico

Especies Focales Principales

Los Gorriones Domésticos se encuentran con facilidad en lugares donde hay casas, u otros edificios, y en algunos sitios sin urbanizar. Junto a otras dos especies de aves introducidas en Norte América, el Estornino Europeo y la Paloma Doméstica, se encuentran dentro de nuestras aves más comunes. Su presencia constante afuera de nuestros hogares nos hace que fácilmente ignoremos su presencia. Sin embargo, para algunas personas su presencia es una molestia porque tienden a desplazar a las aves nativas de las cajas nido. Los Gorriones Domésticos, con su capacidad para vivir tan apegados al se humano, son de los que se han beneficiado por nuestro propio éxito.

Distribución


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Hábitat

Los Gorriones Domésticos viven apegados al ser humano y sus construcciones. Búscalos en las ciudades, pueblos, suburbios y granjas, en particular, cerca del ganado. No los encontrarás en áreas silvestres extensas, bosques, o praderas. En ambientes extremos tales como los desiertos y el extremo norte del continente, los Gorriones Domésticos sólo sobreviven si viven en la vecindad inmediata del ser humano.

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Alimentación

Los Gorriones Domésticos comen principalmente granos y semillas, alimento para ganado, y en las ciudades, de comida en la basura. Entre las cosechas de las que se alimentan está el maíz, la avena, el trigo y la soja. Comida silvestre incluye ambrosía, zácate mano de cangrejo y otras malezas, y el alforfón. Los Gorriones Domésticos también comen semillas de comedero para aves incluyendo el mijo, sorgo y semillas de maravilla. Estas aves urbanas están preparadas para consumir estas semillas a la venta. Durante el verano, los Gorriones Domésticos comen insectos y los comparten con sus polluelos. Ellos cazan los insectos al vuelo, abalanzándose sobre ellos, persiguiendo a podadores de césped, o visitando faroles a la hora del crepúsculo.

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Comportamiento

Los Gorriones Domésticos saltan en vez de caminar en el suelo. Son aves sociales que comen en grandes bandadas, y se disputan por migajas o semillas en el suelo. Los Gorriones Domésticos son aves que frecuentemente se les ve en los comederos para aves. También los puedes ver bañándose en posas callejeras o, revolcándose en el polvo en sitios abiertos, erizando sus plumas y salpicándose de agua o polvo con movimientos y parecidos. Debido a que viven en grandes grupos, Los Gorriones Domésticos han desarrollado muchas maneras de manifestar el dominio y la sumisión. Aves nerviosas sacuden sus colas. Aves exaltadas se agachan poniendo su cuerpo horizontal, estirando su cabeza hacia delante y parcialmente estirando y curvando las alas hacia delante, mientras mantienen su cola parada. Este comportamiento de descontento se puede hacer más exagerado al levantar las alas, erizar las plumas de la garganta y corona, extender las plumas de la cola y abrir el pico. Los machos con más negro en las plumas de la garganta tienden a dominar a los machos con menos negro en estas plumas. Cuando los machos se encuentran con una hembra disponible, inflan el pecho, mantienen sus alas parcialmente abiertas, menean su cola, y saltan de golpe frente a la hembra, girando hacia el costado y a veces haciendo una reverencia de arriba abajo. Si otros machos ven este comportamiento, puede que vuelen al medio de al acción y se sumen al acto. En bandadas, los machos tienden a dominar a las hembras en el otoño y el invierno, pero est ose invierte a favor de las hembras durante la primavera y el verano.

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Anidación

Los nidos de los Gorriones Domésticos los hacen a base de vegetación seca y áspera, que suelen embutir en un hoyo hasta que éste esté casi lleno. Entonces es que las aves usan materiales más finos, como plumas, hilos y papel que usan para recubrir el interior. A veces, los Gorriones Domésticos construyen nidos uno al lado de otro, por lo que puede que los nidos compartan murallas adyacentes. Los Gorriones Domésticos suelen reusar sus nidos.

Apariencia

Sonidos Típicos

Sparrows
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© Brad Walker / Macaulay Library

Tamaño y Figura

Los Gorriones Domésticos no están emparentados con otros gorriones norteamericanos, y tienen una silueta diferente a la de la mayoría de los gorriones americanos. Son más fornidos y rellenos en el pecho, con una cabeza más grande y redonda, cola más corta y un pico más robusto que la mayoría de los gorriones americanos.

Color

Los Gorriones Domésticos machos son aves de colores llamativos, con una corona gris, mejillas blancas, babero negro y nuca rojiza-aunque en las ciudades se les puede ver de un color opaco y sucio en apariencia. Las hembras son de color marrón simple y tienen el pecho café grisáceo. Sus espaldas se destacan por sus rayas amarillo crema, negras y cafés.


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Fotos de la Especie

Especies Parecidas

La hembra del Arrocero Americano tiene un pico más largo y grueso que el de la hembra del Gorrión Doméstico, además de tener una barba blanca, una raya negra de bigote, y normalmente tener un tinte amarillo en la línea del ojo y en el pecho. Los Gorriones de Garganta Negra del oeste árido de Estados Unidos, tienen la cabeza gris, blanca y negra, sin marrón. Los Gorriones de Harris tienen la cara de color café simple, sin los cachetes blancos que tiene el macho del Gorrión Doméstico, y su frente negra. Los Gorriones de Corona Blanca juveniles se parecen a las hembras de los Gorriones Domésticos, pero tienen una corona de café rojizo y unas franjas finas y blancas en las alas. Los Gorriones Molineros, que viven en St. Louis, Missouri, tienen una corona café completa y una mancha oscura en el cachete.

¿Sabías que…?

¿Sabías?

  • Cien Gorriones Domésticos fueron comprados en $200 dólares por el Sr. Nicolas Pike en Inglaterra, y liberados en Brooklyn, NY, en el otoño de 1851 y la primavera de 1952. Para el año 1900, los Gorriones Domésticos se habían dispersado por casi todo Estados Unidos y Canadá.
  • Los Gorriones Domésticos pueden nadar si se ven en la necesidad de hacerlo. Un Gorrión Doméstico adulto nadó hasta la próxima orilla mientras escapaba de un halcón. Los polluelos que se caen de sus nidos al agua, también pueden nadar hasta una orilla cercana.